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Software Testing Interview Questions

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How we calculate Defect Leakage in Software Testing?


  • CD = No. of Defects raise by customer after release
  • DR = No. of Defects raised by Tester before release
  • ID =  No. of invalid Defects from Defects raised by tester before release(Eg. Duplicate, CannotFix, error in test environment etc.)

Formula to calculate Defect Leakage:

Defect Leakage = [CD / (DR - ID)] * 100

For Example:

If after release client found 9 defects, during the test, tester reported 201 defects and from these 20 defects were invalid, Then,

Defect Leakage = [ 9 / 201 - 20] * 100 = 4.9%

What is Defect Leakage?

After the delivery of application or product or after the release, if end user or Customer find any defect by using that application then it is called defect leakage, it is also called bug leakage.

In short, defect leakage is a metric that measures the percentage of defects leaked from the current testing stage to the subsequent stage as well as proves the effectiveness of testing executed by software testers.

How will you manage Team Conflicts?

With the diversity in backgrounds and working styles of team members, the first step is to expect and prepare for conflicts during the test project.

The next step is to hold a meeting and appraise team members of the project status. The Test Manager needs to keep communication open for everyone such that the team frustrations and anger are vented out. Lastly, ask the team members to co-operate and stress the importance of their cooperation for the success of the project.

Mention some of the best practices for test estimation?

Some of the best practices for Test Estimation are:

  • Add some buffer time: Having a buffer time is always an advantage, it may help to deal with a delay caused due to unexpected reason like talented member quits the job suddenly.
  • Account resource planning in estimation: Make sure that your estimation is realistic and considered crucial factors like availability of human resource.
  • Use the past experience reference: Through your past experience try to avoid all the obstacles or possible hindrance that are most likely to happen.
  • Stick to your estimation: Estimation is not full proof. It may go wrong also. In the early phase of the project, you should re-check the test estimation and if required make modifications as well.

What is three-point estimation?

In the three-point estimation, three values are initially produced for every task based on previous experience. For example, to complete a specific task the different possibilities are:

  • Best case estimate: 120 man-hours or 15 days with experienced team members
  • The most likely estimate: 170 hours or 21 days with enough resources and moderate team members experience
  • The worst-case estimate: 200 man-hours or 25 days and with a team that has lesser work experience

Explain how Test Manager can estimate the project and what to estimate?

During Test Estimation, a Test Manager must evaluate four things:

  1. Cost
  2. Resources
  3. Human Skills
  4. Time

They can estimate the project in following ways:

  • Work breakdown structure (WBS): Breaking down project into smaller segments
  • Three-point estimation: Three-point estimation is based on statistical data
  • Functional point method: Give weightage to each function and measure the size

What are the countermeasures that test manager should take against risks?

Test manager must take following steps to mitigate the risk while developing product:

  • Avoidance: Eliminate the risk factor that is involved.
  • Reduction: Mitigation plan to decrease the impact of risks and to take corrective measures.
  • Sharing: Transfer the risk to another resource such as insource or insure.
  • Accept: Accept the risk and prepare a planned budget for these risks.
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