Gradient Descent Linear Regression: Consider the Advertising dataset

Consider the 'Advertising' dataset, which consists of columns such as 'TV', 'Radio', 'Newspaper', and 'Sales'. You are required to define the relationships between the Sales column and other independent variables.

Download the dataset from this link

You are required to use gradient descent and sklearn linear regression to answer the question below. 


  • The data doesn't require any cleaning
  • You need to normalise the data before building the gradient descent model

Q1: Gradient Descent What is the cost of the 0th iteration?

  • 0.55
  • 0.48
  • 0.32

Q2: What is the cost of the 999th iteration?

  • 0.6
  • 0.05
  • 0.45

Q3: After plotting the graph between the cost and the number of iterations, at what point does the cost get flattened?

  • >200 iterations
  • <200 iterations

Q4: Is there any difference between the coefficients obtained from the gradient descent from scratch and the coefficients obtained by running linear regression through sklearn?

  • Yes
  • No


import pandas as pd
ad = pd.read_csv('advertising.csv')

ad = (ad - ad.mean())/ad.std()

# Putting feature variable to X
X = ad[['TV','Radio','Newspaper']]
# Putting response variable to y
y = ad['Sales']

X['intercept'] = 1
X = X.reindex_axis(['intercept','TV','Radio','Newspaper'], axis=1)

import numpy as np
X = np.array(X)
y = np.array(y)

# Theta needed to be changed with the number of response varaible used.
theta = np.matrix(np.array([0,0,0,0])) 
alpha = 0.01
iterations = 1000

import numpy as np

def compute_cost(X, y, theta):
    return np.sum(np.square(np.matmul(X, theta) - y)) / (2 * len(y))

def gradient_descent_multi(X, y, theta, alpha, iterations):
    theta = np.zeros(X.shape[1])
    m = len(X)
    gdm_df = pd.DataFrame( columns = ['Bets','cost'])

    for i in range(iterations):
        gradient = (1/m) * np.matmul(X.T, np.matmul(X, theta) - y)
        theta = theta - alpha * gradient
        cost = compute_cost(X, y, theta)
        gdm_df.loc[i] = [theta,cost]

    return gdm_df

print(gradient_descent_multi(X, y, theta, alpha, iterations).values[999])

gradient_descent_multi(X, y, theta, alpha, iterations).reset_index().plot.line(x='index', y=['cost'])
# import LinearRegression from sklearn
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression

# Representing LinearRegression as lr(Creating LinearRegression Object)
lr = LinearRegression()

#You don't need to specify an object to save the result because 'lr' will take the results of the fitted model., y)