- Selenium core is obsolete.
- Selenium Rc APIs modified to leg-RC(legacy package)
- Eradicating thread-safety bugs and perfect support for docker selenium 4 will introduce the most stable selenium grid.
- As part of this release, request tracing and logging docker support have been modified for automation engineers to get a great hold of nasty bugs.
- W3C recommendations document for selenium web driver is now available, which provides a clear picture of how selenium APIs work.
- This will encourage compatibility over different software implementations of web driver API.
- JSON wire protocol will no longer be used.
- The test will directly communicate without any encoding and decoding of API requests.
New plugin system: Any browser vendor will now easily plug into new selenium IDE.
New CLI runner: It is now based entirely on Nodejs and not an old HTML-based runner.
Webdriver Playback: New selenium IDE will be based entirely on web driver.
Parallel Execution: The new CLI runner will also support parallel test case executions and provide the time taken for several tests passed and failed.
Improved Selenium Grid:
- Compared to the previous version of the selenium grid, which was hard to set up and rigid in scaling.
- The new grid comes with docker support.
- This will help testers use the containers and not the heavy virtual machines.
The grid can now be deployed in three modes:
- Hub and node
- Fully distributed
New Relative Locators:
New locators which located dom elements based on relative has been introduced.
To left of To right of Above Below
Improved Window/Tab Management:
The previous selenium version was a hassle to switch between tabs where we needed to create a new driver object and then perform switch operation.
Now in selenium 4, this is hassle-free.
It now comes with a new API called newWindow and gives us the option to mention the window type, whether it is a tab or a new window.
driver.get("https://www.programsbuzz.com/"); driver.switchTo().newWindow(WindowType.WINDOW); driver.navigate().to("http://autopract.com/#/home/fashion");
driver.get("https://www.programsbuzz.com/"); driver.switchTo().newWindow(WindowType.TAB); driver.navigate().to("http://autopract.com/#/home/fashion");
Desired Capabilities Deprecation:
- Desired Capabilities are used in selenium to define the test environment for the execution.
- In version 4, capabilities are now replaced with options.
- This means we have to create a new object called options, set the requirements of the test and pass the object to the driver.
Some of the options objects are as follows:
Firefox – FirefoxOptions Chrome – ChromeOptions Internet Explorer (IE) – InternetExplorerOptions Microsoft Edge – EdgeOptions Safari – SafariOptions
- In selenium actions class are responsible for double click, click, left and right-click, etc.
- Selenium 4 has tweaked some of the new methods for it.
- click(WebElement): Replaced instead of moveToElement(onElement).click() which is used to click certain webelements.
- clickAndHold(WebElement): Replaced instead of moveToElement(onElement).clickAndHold() which is used to move to certain element and click and hold it.
- contextClick(WebElement): Replaced instead of moveToElement(onElement).contextClick() which performs right click.
- doubleClick(WebElement): Replaced instead of moveToElement(element).doubleClick().
- release(): This was already a part of the button release action class, which was later in selenium 4 moved to actions class.
Compared to the previous version of selenium, this update looks promising with many features and improvements they brought to life.